Raymond Y. Cho, MD

Assistant Professor, Psychiatry


3501 Forbes Ave., Suite 450
F: 412-647-7861
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MD, University of Toronto (1993)


Neuroimaging studies of cognitive control in healthy and psychiatric populations.

Research Summary

My research focuses on elucidating the architecture and dynamics of cognitive control mechanisms and how they are disturbed in serious mental illness such as schizophrenia. Cognitive control describes the ability to coordinate and appropriately bias cognitive processes in the service of goal-directed behavior. We examine such adjustments using conflict and task-switching behavioral paradigms during EEG and fMRI acquisition to examine the brain areas and dynamics underlying these adjustments.

Another related line of my research examines the role of synchronous, oscillatory neuronal activity in supporting cognitive control processes. Gamma-band oscillations have been associated with basic perception as well as higher-order cognitive processes such as attention and working memory. My research investigates the importance of synchronous oscillations to cognitive control processes such as the maintenance of task context information. We use EEG during behavioral paradigms to probe such associations and have begun computational modeling studies to understand the mechanisms by which oscillations may help in supporting the appropriate representations.

My research in normal cognition is also applied to understanding the disturbances in cognitive control in schizophrenia. We have ongoing behavioral, EEG and fMRI studies in schizophrenia, including studies of first-episode schizophrenia patients, offering the unique opportunity to examine disturbances in cognition in the absence of such important confounds as medication effects and treatment chronicity.


Forster, S.E., Carter, C. S., Cohen, J.D., Cho, R.Y. Parametric Manipulation of the Conflict Signal and Control-State Adaptation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 23(4), 923-35, 2011.

Kieffaber, P. Cho, R. Y. Cortical Gamma-band Oscillations Elicited by Implicit Probability Cues in the Preparing to Overcome Prepotency (POP) Task. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience. 10(4), 431-440, 2010.

Cho, R. Y., Orr, J. M., Cohen, J.D., Carter, C. S. Generalized Signaling for Control: Evidence from Post-Conflict and Post-Error Performance Adjustments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 35(4), 1161-1177, 2009.

Frankle, W.G., Cho, R.Y., Narendran, R., Mason, N.S., Vora, S. Litschge, M., Price, J.C., Lewis, D.A., Mathis, C.A. The Ability to Increase Extracellular GABA Predicts Frontal Cortical Gamma Synchrony. Neuropsychopharmacology. 34(3), 624-33, 2009.

Cho, R. Y., Konecky, R. O., & Carter, C. S. (2006). Impairments in Frontal Cortical Gamma Synchrony and Cognitive Control in Schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences, 103, 19878-19883